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King Henry V of England is credited with having invented what some consider the first passport in the modern sense, as a means of helping his subjects prove who they were in foreign lands.
The earliest reference to these documents is found in a Act of Parliament. In , issuing British passports became the job of the Office of the Secretary of State.
A rapid expansion of railway infrastructure and wealth in Europe beginning in the mid-nineteenth century led to large increases in the volume of international travel and a consequent unique dilution of the passport system for approximately thirty years prior to World War I.
The speed of trains, as well as the number of passengers that crossed multiple borders, made enforcement of passport laws difficult. The general reaction was the relaxation of passport requirements.
Consequently, comparatively few people held passports. During World War I, European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons, and to control the emigration of people with useful skills.
These controls remained in place after the war, becoming a standard, though controversial, procedure. British tourists of the s complained, especially about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which they considered led to a "nasty dehumanisation".
While the United Nations held a travel conference in , no passport guidelines resulted from it. ICAO standards include those for machine-readable passports.
This enables border controllers and other law enforcement agents to process these passports more quickly, without having to input the information manually into a computer.
These contain biometrics to authenticate the identity of travellers. The passport's critical information is stored on a tiny RFID computer chip, much like information stored on smartcards.
Like some smartcards, the passport booklet design calls for an embedded contactless chip that is able to hold digital signature data to ensure the integrity of the passport and the biometric data.
Historically, legal authority to issue passports is founded on the exercise of each country's executive discretion or Crown prerogative.
Certain legal tenets follow, namely: first, passports are issued in the name of the state; second, no person has a legal right to be issued a passport; third, each country's government, in exercising its executive discretion, has complete and unfettered discretion to refuse to issue or to revoke a passport; and fourth, that the latter discretion is not subject to judicial review.
However, legal scholars including A. Arkelian have argued that evolutions in both the constitutional law of democratic countries and the international law applicable to all countries now render those historical tenets both obsolete and unlawful.
Under some circumstances some countries allow people to hold more than one passport document. This may apply, for example, to people who travel a lot on business, and may need to have, say, a passport to travel on while another is awaiting a visa for another country.
The UK for example may issue a second passport if the applicant can show a need and supporting documentation, such as a letter from an employer.
Today, most countries issue individual passports to applying citizens, including children, with only a few still issuing family passports see below under "Types" or including children on a parent's passport most countries having switched to individual passports in the early to midth century.
When passport holders apply for a new passport commonly, due to expiration of the previous passport, insufficient validity for entry to some countries or lack of blank pages , they may be required to surrender the old passport for invalidation.
In some circumstances an expired passport is not required to be surrendered or invalidated for example, if it contains an unexpired visa.
Under the law of most countries, passports are government property, and may be limited or revoked at any time, usually on specified grounds, and possibly subject to judicial review.
Each country sets its own conditions for the issue of passports. Some countries limit the issuance of passports, where incoming and outgoing international travels are highly regulated, such as North Korea , where ordinary passports are the privilege of a very small number of people trusted by the government.
South Korean passport and Syrian passport. Passports contain a statement of the nationality of the holder. In most countries, only one class of nationality exists, and only one type of ordinary passport is issued.
However, several types of exceptions exist:. The United Kingdom has a number of classes of United Kingdom nationality due to its colonial history.
As a result, the UK issues various passports which are similar in appearance but representative of different nationality statuses which, in turn, has caused foreign governments to subject holders of different UK passports to different entry requirements.
Visa policies imposed by foreign authorities on Hong Kong and Macau permanent residents holding such passports are different from those holding ordinary passports of the People's Republic of China.
The three constituent countries of the Danish Realm have a common nationality. In rare instances a nationality is available through investment.
Some investors have been described in Tongan passports as 'a Tongan protected person', a status which does not necessarily carry with it the right of abode in Tonga.
Several entities without a sovereign territory issue documents described as passports, most notably Iroquois League ,   the Aboriginal Provisional Government in Australia and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
Many countries require passports to be valid for a minimum of six months beyond the planned date of departure, as well as having at least two to four blank pages.
One method to measure the 'value' of a passport is to calculate its 'visa-free score' VFS , which is the number of countries that allow the holder of that passport entry for general tourism without requiring a visa.
A rough standardization exists in types of passports throughout the world, although passport types, number of pages, and definitions can vary by country.
Non-citizens in Latvia and Estonia are individuals, primarily of Russian or Ukrainian ethnicity, who are not citizens of Latvia or Estonia but whose families have resided in the area since the Soviet era, and thus have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights.
Approximately two thirds of them are ethnic Russians , followed by ethnic Belarusians, ethnic Ukrainians, ethnic Poles and ethnic Lithuanians.
Non-citizens in the two countries are issued special non-citizen passports   as opposed to regular passports issued by the Estonian and Latvian authorities to citizens.
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